Stage Lighting Control

RDM DMX – A Guide to the Basics

A guide to the basics of RDM (Remote Device Management) DMX. How it works and what it does.

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What is RDM DMX?

You might know that DMX512 is a one way, serial control signal, the basics of which are explained in DMX Lighting Systems.

RDM is a development
built on the DMX512 stage lighting control protocol that enables Remote Device Management of devices such as moving lights, dimmers and other DMX effects. Outlined in ANSI E1.20-2006 and using the existing DMX signal cores (pins 2 and 3), RDM allows two way communication between a lighting controller and the fixtures in rig.

Two way communication allows the controller to interrogate other RDM devices and make changes to their settings. Common uses might be remote setting of DMX start addresses from the console or collecting fault reports from the equipment.

What equipment do you need to use RDM DMX?

Lighting equipment manufacturers are trumpeting the fact that their new Wobbli Buckettes ™ are RDM compatible. This is because, while RDM systems are backwards compatible with “normal” DMX, the main components of RDM DMX need to be able to deal with the new two way system.

So, if you want to use the RDM functions you will need a controller that can do it. This doesn’t have to be the main lighting desk , it could be a laptop. You will also need devices (fixtures, dimmers etc) that have some degree of RDM control. Importantly, you will need to use RDM compatible DMX buffers/splitters in those parts of your DMX system – these gateways must allow the two way communication all the way back to the controller.

You can still use your old 3 core cables – woo hoo – but RDM is not as “easy” as a normal DMX signal. This means that the correct system design, cabling and termination is even more important. Using cheap mic cables won’t be a satisfactory option (not that it is at the moment).

How does RDM work?

Normal DMX values are sent along the line from the controller and “heard” by all the devices in that DMX universe. RDM values are sent back the other way – but not constantly. During an RDM interaction the controller can ask one or more devices for some information, which they then return. The RDM interactions then subside until the next query. In this way, RDM does not eat up 50% of the signal capacity. During normal operation, the RDM part of the signal only accounts for around 10% – 15% of the action.

The controller can also send instructions to the devices, such as parameters setting, without asking for a response.

For the system to work, the individual parts must be indentifiable. RDM uses UID (Unique Indentification Number) fixed within each device, as well as a manufacturer ID. This is an unalterable hardware setting and is not the same as the DMX start address.

To determine the UID of each RDM device on the line, the controller uses a “one off” process called “discovery”. This is a signal and computer hungry process, begun after all devices are connected up. The actual process of UID discovery is a bit like a digital game of “20 Questions” that gradually eliminates all the “players” (devices) until the controller is satisfied that it has the UID of all the RDM equipment.

How do I set DMX addresses remotely?

So far, the RDM controller knows the UID and model of each fixture – but not where it is in your rig. To locate each fixture and set a DMX address the user can cycle through the devices, each one showing themselves. Once a fixture is identified the operator can set the desired DMX address or any other options available. Order is restored.

What else could RDM do?

As well as setting DMX addresses from the floor, two way RDM communication between operator and device brings other uses such as:

  • Lamp hours monitoring
  • Temperature sensor reporting
  • Fault codes
  • Fixture mode setting
  • Attribute inverting – Pan/Tilt etc.

The benefit of these depend on your rig and situation, but the possibility of more advanced stage lighting control using a simple and robust system like DMX can only be a good thing. Although lighting manufacturers are now building equipment with one eye on RDM, the actual implementation is slow going. Other developments in the integration of networks, media and lighting control might get in the way. We’ll just have to wait and see.

If you have any questions or comments about RDM, put them in the box below.

  1. raghav

    hi! rob i want to know about dmx.what is the full form of it.for eg:RDM means remote device management.what is the meaning of DMX .thanks

  2. Callum

    Not 100 percent sure about his but i’ve always been lead to believe that DMX means digital multiplex, also known as DMX512 owing to the fact that 512 channels of control can be achieved with a single control cable.

    Most intelligent fixtures use more that one DMX channel for operation

    Address 1 may control the horizontal movement on Wobbly Bucket 1
    whereas Address 2 may control the vertical movement.

    Usually it is only nessescary to set the DMX start address for each fixture (in the example above #1) as the assignment of each parameter to subsequent addresses is handled by the fixture parameter file.

    Hope this helps. Rob can probably explain it better than me.

  3. Z-Wave

    Thanks for the guide – So would DMX be something we could look at for our local highschool stage or is it a bit beyond basic stage lighting, more focused on professional setups?

  4. Sophie

    I am aware of RDM but are there any other types of control similar to this? I know that High End Systems create a Talkback system, but are there anyother types of bi-directional control?


  5. Smiffy


    Realistically, you have RDM, ACN, and DMX. DMX, back when it replaced Analogue, was one of a number of possibilities. As an industry, we’ve outgrown DMX now, and so ACN and RDM are the two lead contenders for a replacement to DMX.

    RDM could probably be considered to be in the lead at the moment.



  6. Arpit Agarwala

    I am a stage lights Eng. And love to work with dmx512. It helps me a lot and made me so comfortable that I can even programme my lights and use it from my home. Just simpley connect to my pc and use through internet…its awesome.

  7. Valerie Long

    I recently was hired to run a theatre’s lighting program. I have a dmx splitter that has three separate lines. One line starts with a dmx instrument and then has a dmx to rdm converter which powers five projector dowsers and then goes back to a converter and powers more dmx lighting instruments. I have been struggling to get these dowsers I work and am wondering if it is because of the different converters and the power lines I have. I have one dowser that is moving without me controlling it and it affects the other dowsers and lights. Do you have any tips?

  8. Rob Sayer

    I would check the dowsers and cabling with a non-RDM DMX output – do they need to go through the RDM converters? Also, if the first splitter is non-RDM then RDM stops right there. Make sure you correctly terminate RDM DMX runs using a terminator plug or termination switch on the final unit. Sorry for the late reply, your comment was hidden by a lot of spam comments. Give us an update if you found the answer! 🙂

  9. Rob Sayer

    If a fixture doesn’t support RDM, it won’t support it. Passing RDM ‘through’ a non-RDM fixture should be possible in cases where the DMX In/Out connections are simply connected together inside the fixture (as they most often are). The stumbling block for non-RDM stuff is at points where the DMX is buffered, usually any active splitters in the system. If they aren’t designed to allow RDM they will roadblock the communications further downstream.

  10. Wilson

    Hi, I’m Wilson… A technician on the hotel… In my stage lighting rig.. I use 8 unit of DMX spotlight with the same address 017..1 unit of moving head using address 001 and 4 unit another DMX spotlight using an address 033 and another 2 units of mini moving head which is using address 049 & 065… And my controller is an unknown brand of DMX 512 controller… And I’m having a few of DMX problems which is i didn’t understand… Because i am a beginner without any basic knowledge about DMX system… Here is the problem that i experienced
    1.Spotlight flickering
    2. Another 4 Spotlight that using address 033 not functioning but got power.
    3.Sometimes the chase or the light setting not functioning even though already set and save.
    4.When the controller is of, some of the light still on and the moving head keep turning around.
    Can u guys tell me how to solve this problem… And btw I’m from Sarawak… And the spotlights mostly made in China… Unidentified brand and model… I really hope that u guys can teach n tell me what n how should i fix those problems…
    Thank you.

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